Evidence that #coronavirus superspreading is #fat-tailed

Superspreaders, infected individuals who result in an outsized number of secondary cases, are believed to underlie a significant fraction of total SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Here, we combine empirical observations of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 transmission and extreme value statistics to show that the distribution of secondary cases is consistent with being fat-tailed, implying that large superspreading events are extremal, yet probable, occurrences. We integrate these results with … Continue reading Evidence that #coronavirus superspreading is #fat-tailed

#Migraine, obesity and body #fat distribution – a population-based study

Obesity has been linked to an increased prevalence of migraine, and to increased migraine attack frequency, but several questions are left unanswered by previous studies. We examined the relationship between obesity and headache in a large, population-based study where we could take into account body fat distribution, migraine subtypes and tension-type headache.. ..Both total body obesity (TBO) and abdominal obesity (AO) were associated with a … Continue reading #Migraine, obesity and body #fat distribution – a population-based study

High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

The clinical spectra of irritable bowel syndrome (#IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (#IBD) intersect to form a scantily defined overlap syndrome, termed pre-IBD. We show that increased Enterobacteriaceae and reduced Clostridia abundance distinguish the fecal microbiota of pre-IBD patients from IBS patients. A history of antibiotics in individuals consuming a high-fat diet was associated with the greatest risk for pre-IBD. Exposing mice to these risk … Continue reading High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

The Association between Popular #Diets and Serum #Testosterone among Men in the United States

..Mean ± SD serum testosterone was 435.5 ± 6.7 ng/dl. Mean testosterone was lower among men with a low fat diet (410.8 ± 8.1 vs 443.5 ± 7.3, p=0.005) and a Mediterranean diet (412.9 ± 9.1 vs 443.5 ± 7.3, p=0.002). Multivariable analysis controlling for age, body mass index, activity level, diabetes, comorbidities and prostate cancer showed that men with a nonrestrictive diet had higher … Continue reading The Association between Popular #Diets and Serum #Testosterone among Men in the United States

Hepatic Lipoprotein Export and Remission of Human Type 2 #Diabetes after #Weight Loss

..Liver fat, VLDL1-triglyceride production, and intra-pancreatic fat decreased after weight loss and remained normalized after 24 months of remission. First-phase insulin response remained increased only in those maintaining diabetes remission. Compared with those in remission at 24 months, individuals who relapsed after initial remission had a greater rise in the content of VLDL1-triglyceride and VLDL1-palmitic acid, re-accumulated intra-pancreatic fat, and lost first-phase response by 24 … Continue reading Hepatic Lipoprotein Export and Remission of Human Type 2 #Diabetes after #Weight Loss

#Caffeine, but not other phytochemicals, in mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) attenuates high-fat-high-#sucrose-diet-driven lipogenesis and body #fat accumulation

The objective was to examine the effectiveness of mate tea (MT, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) and caffeine from mate tea (MC) on in vitro lipid accumulation and in vivo diet-driven-obesity.. ..MC reduced lipid accumulation (41%) via downregulation of fatty acid synthase (Fasn) (39%) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Rats fed a high-fat-high-sucrose-diet and 0.1% of caffeine from MC, MT, or DM. MC attenuated weight gain (16%) and … Continue reading #Caffeine, but not other phytochemicals, in mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) attenuates high-fat-high-#sucrose-diet-driven lipogenesis and body #fat accumulation

The Effect of #Macronutrients on #Reproductive Hormones in Overweight and Obese Men: A Pilot Study

..Hypogonadal obese men find it difficult to lose weight. We investigated whether the modification of macronutrient intake can alter testosterone levels independently of the body mass index. Fasted overweight or obese fertile men were asked to consume meals of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), monounsaturated fats (MUFA), refined carbohydrates (CHO, orange juice, OJ), whey and egg albumin and mixed meals of PUFA and CHO, PUFA and egg … Continue reading The Effect of #Macronutrients on #Reproductive Hormones in Overweight and Obese Men: A Pilot Study

Fatty #Airways: Implications for #Obstructive Disease

Epidemiological studies report that overweight or obese asthmatic subjects have more severe disease than those of a healthy weight. We postulated accumulation of adipose tissue within the airway wall may occur in overweight patients and contribute to airway pathology ..BMI ranged from 15 to 45 (kg·m−2) and was greater in NFA (p<0.05). Adipose tissue was identified in the outer wall of large airways (Pbm>6 mm), but … Continue reading Fatty #Airways: Implications for #Obstructive Disease

Impact of dietary #sucrose on #adiposity and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice depends on mode of ingestion: liquid or solid

..Since in humans consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been widely implicated, we investigated whether the mode of ingestion (solid or liquid) had different impacts on body weight regulation and glucose homeostasis Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water, but not equivalent levels of solid sucrose, led to body fat gain in C57BL/6 mice. Glucose intolerance was positively correlated to body fatness, rather than sucrose intake. Conclusions Our data … Continue reading Impact of dietary #sucrose on #adiposity and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice depends on mode of ingestion: liquid or solid