Circulating Vitamin #D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in #COVID-19 patients

Several immune mechanisms activate in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Usually, coronavirus infection is characterized by dysregulated host immune responses, interleukine-6 increase, hyper-activation of cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes. Interestingly, Vitamin D deficiency has been often associated with altered immune responses and infections. In the present study, we evaluated Vitamin D plasma levels in patients affected with different lung involvement during COVID-19 infection. Methods Lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed by … Continue reading Circulating Vitamin #D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in #COVID-19 patients

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Assessment of protection against #reinfection with #SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study

The degree to which infection with SARS-CoV-2 confers protection towards subsequent reinfection is not well described. In 2020, as part of Denmark’s extensive, free-of-charge PCR-testing strategy, approximately 4 million individuals (69% of the population) underwent 10·6 million tests. Using these national PCR-test data from 2020, we estimated protection towards repeat infection with SARS-CoV-2. Methods In this population-level observational study, we collected individual-level data on patients … Continue reading Assessment of protection against #reinfection with #SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study

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Impact of the #COVID-19 Vaccine on Asymptomatic #Infection Among Patients Undergoing Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Molecular Screening

Several vaccines are now clinically available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. The impact of vaccines on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is largely unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39,156) within a large United States healthcare system who underwent 48,333 pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between December 17, … Continue reading Impact of the #COVID-19 Vaccine on Asymptomatic #Infection Among Patients Undergoing Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Molecular Screening

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Low #Zinc Levels at Admission Associates with Poor Clinical Outcomes in #SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts host–pathogen interplay at infection. Zinc balances immune responses, and also has a proven direct antiviral action against some viruses. Importantly, zinc deficiency (ZD) is a common condition in elderly and individuals with chronic diseases, two groups with an increased risk for severe severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We hypothesize that serum zinc content (SZC) influences COVID-19 … Continue reading Low #Zinc Levels at Admission Associates with Poor Clinical Outcomes in #SARS-CoV-2 Infection

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#Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents major infective episodes in patients with systemic #lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressants: A non-concurrent cohort study

Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prevents pneumocystis jirovecii infection in SLE on immunosuppression. Its role in preventing other major infections in immuno suppressed SLE patients is unknown. Methods A non-concurrent cohort study was conducted on patients of SLE fulfilling SLICC and/or ACR 1997 criteria, who received tapering dose of steroid starting with ≥0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone or equivalent dose of deflazacort and mycophenolate mofetil ≥1 g/day (or equivalent dose … Continue reading #Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents major infective episodes in patients with systemic #lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressants: A non-concurrent cohort study

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Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common occurrence in childhood; consequently, evidence-based recommendations for its treatment are required. Objective To determine whether 5 days of high-dose amoxicillin for CAP was associated with noninferior rates of clinical cure compared with 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin. Design, Setting, and Participants The SAFER (Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Respiratory Infections) study was a 2-center, parallel-group, noninferiority randomized clinical trial … Continue reading Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

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Association between antecedent #statin use and decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with #COVID-19

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 … Continue reading Association between antecedent #statin use and decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with #COVID-19

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The #SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain preferentially recognizes #blood group A

Key Points The RBD of SARS-CoV-2 shares sequence similarity with an ancient lectin family known to bind blood group antigens. SARS-CoV-2 RBD binds the blood group A expressed on respiratory epithelial cells, directly linking blood group A and SARS-CoV-2. https://bit.ly/3sRfU1l Continue reading The #SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain preferentially recognizes #blood group A

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A living WHO guideline on drugs to prevent #covid-19

..The linked systematic review and network meta-analysis (6 trials and 6059 participants) found that hydroxychloroquine had a small or no effect on mortality and admission to hospital (high certainty evidence). There was a small or no effect on laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (moderate certainty evidence) but probably increased adverse events leading to discontinuation (moderate certainty evidence). The panel judged that almost all people would not … Continue reading A living WHO guideline on drugs to prevent #covid-19

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Adherent-invasive E. coli metabolism of propanediol in #Crohn’s disease regulates phagocytes to drive intestinal #inflammation

Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) are enriched in the intestinal microbiota of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and promote intestinal inflammation. Yet, how AIEC metabolism of nutrients impacts intestinal homeostasis is poorly defined. Here, we show that AIEC encoding the large subunit of propanediol dehydratase (PduC), which facilitates the utilization of fucose fermentation product 1,2-propanediol, are increased in the microbiome of CD patients and drive AIEC-induced … Continue reading Adherent-invasive E. coli metabolism of propanediol in #Crohn’s disease regulates phagocytes to drive intestinal #inflammation

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Early initiation of prophylactic #anticoagulation for prevention of #coronavirus disease 2019 mortality in patients admitted to hospital in the United States: cohort study

To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. Participants All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 … Continue reading Early initiation of prophylactic #anticoagulation for prevention of #coronavirus disease 2019 mortality in patients admitted to hospital in the United States: cohort study

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#Hydrating the respiratory tract: an alternative explanation why masks lower severity of #COVID-19

The seasonality of respiratory diseases has been linked, among other factors, to low outdoor absolute humidity and low indoor relative humidity, which increase evaporation of water in the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that normal breathing results in an absorption-desorption cycle inside facemasks, in which supersaturated air is absorbed by the mask fibers during expiration, followed by evaporation during inspiration of dry … Continue reading #Hydrating the respiratory tract: an alternative explanation why masks lower severity of #COVID-19

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