Baloxavir Marboxil for Prophylaxis against Influenza in Household Contacts

Baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) is a polymerase acidic protein (PA) endonuclease inhibitor with clinical efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated influenza, including in outpatients at increased risk for complications. The postexposure prophylactic efficacy of baloxavir in the household setting is unclear.. ..A total of 752 household contacts of 545 index patients were randomly assigned to receive baloxavir or placebo. Among the index patients, 95.6% had influenza … Continue reading Baloxavir Marboxil for Prophylaxis against Influenza in Household Contacts

Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China

Transmission of COVID-19 within families and close contacts accounts for the majority of epidemic growth. Community mask wearing, hand washing and social distancing are thought to be effective but there is little evidence to inform or support community members on COVID-19 risk reduction within families.. ..The secondary attack rate in families was 23.0% (77/335). Face mask use by the primary case and family contacts before … Continue reading Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China

Effect of #Zinc Supplementation vs Placebo on Mortality Risk and #HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Positive Adults With Heavy #Alcohol Use

.. A total of 254 participants (184 men [72%]; mean [SD] age, 34 [6] years) were enrolled in the trial; 126 were randomized to receive zinc, and 128 were randomized to receive placebo. Participants had high CD4 cell counts (mean [SD], 521 [292] cells/mm3), and 188 (74%) reported heavy drinking in the past week. In the main analyses, zinc supplementation did not affect changes in … Continue reading Effect of #Zinc Supplementation vs Placebo on Mortality Risk and #HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Positive Adults With Heavy #Alcohol Use

Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host–Pathogen Dynamics

In many cases, interactions among host, pathogen, and environment are insufficient to describe disease dynamics in the wild. The host microbiome plays an important role in host immunity, at the interface between the host and the pathogen, and affects disease outcome. The environment, as well as environmental microbiomes, influence the host microbiome, and also influence simultaneously the host and the pathogen. The three-edged disease triangle … Continue reading Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host–Pathogen Dynamics

Skeletal muscle antagonizes antiviral CD8+ T cell exhaustion

CD8+ T cells become functionally impaired or “exhausted” in chronic infections, accompanied by unwanted body weight reduction and muscle mass loss. Whether muscle regulates T cell exhaustion remains incompletely understood. We report that mouse skeletal muscle increased interleukin (IL)–15 production during LCMV clone 13 chronic infection. Muscle-specific ablation of Il15 enhanced the CD8+ T cell exhaustion phenotype. Muscle-derived IL-15 was required to maintain a population … Continue reading Skeletal muscle antagonizes antiviral CD8+ T cell exhaustion

CDC people at risk of devere COVID-19 illness

..CDC has removed the specific age threshold from the older adult classification. CDC now warns that among adults, risk increases steadily as you age, and it’s not just those over the age of 65 who are at increased risk for severe illness.. ..There was consistent evidence (from multiple small studies or a strong association from a large study) that specific conditions increase a person’s risk … Continue reading CDC people at risk of devere COVID-19 illness

Greater T Regulatory Cells in Females Attenuate DOCA-Salt–Induced Increases in Blood Pressure Versus Males

Hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing over 18 million deaths a year. Although the mechanisms controlling blood pressure (BP) in either sex remain largely unknown, T cells play a critical role in the development of hypertension. Further evidence supports a role for the immune system in contributing to sex differences in hypertension. The goal of the current study was to … Continue reading Greater T Regulatory Cells in Females Attenuate DOCA-Salt–Induced Increases in Blood Pressure Versus Males

Detection of Ciprofloxacin resistant beta lactamase producing Neisseria meningitidis

What is already known about this topic? Most Neisseria meningitidis isolates in the United States have been susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treatment and prophylaxis. What is added by this report? During 2019–2020, 11 meningococcal isolates from U.S. patients had isolates containing a blaROB-1 β-lactamase gene associated with penicillin resistance and mutations associated with ciprofloxacin resistance. An additional 22 cases reported during 2013–2020 contained blaROB-1 … Continue reading Detection of Ciprofloxacin resistant beta lactamase producing Neisseria meningitidis

Association of Azithromycin Use With Cardiovascular Mortality

Azithromycin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in the US. It has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in some observational studies.. ..The study included 7 824 681 antibiotic exposures, including 1 736 976 azithromycin exposures (22.2%) and 6 087 705 amoxicillin exposures (77.8%), among 2 929 008 unique individuals (mean [SD] age, 50.7 [12.3] years; 1 810 127 [61.8%] women). Azithromycin was associated with a significantly increased hazard of … Continue reading Association of Azithromycin Use With Cardiovascular Mortality

Prevalence of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly throughout the world since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were observed in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It has been suspected that infected persons who remain asymptomatic play a significant role in the ongoing pandemic, but their relative number and effect have been uncertain. The authors sought to review and synthesize the … Continue reading Prevalence of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of #COVID-19

Various mitigation measures have been implemented to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including widely adopted social distancing and mandated face covering. However, assessing the effectiveness of those intervention practices hinges on the understanding of virus transmission, which remains uncertain. Here we show that airborne transmission is highly virulent and represents the dominant route to spread the disease. By analyzing the trend and mitigation … Continue reading Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of #COVID-19

Influence of perceived threat of Covid-19 and HEXACO personality traits on toilet paper stockpiling

Following the fast spread of Covid-19 across Europe and North America in March 2020, many people started stockpiling commodities like toilet paper. Despite the high relevance for public authorities to adequately address stockpiling behavior, empirical studies on the psychological underpinnings of toilet paper stockpiling are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the relation between personality traits, perceived threat of Covid-19, and stockpiling of toilet … Continue reading Influence of perceived threat of Covid-19 and HEXACO personality traits on toilet paper stockpiling