Cigarette Smoking and Incident Stroke in Blacks of the Jackson Heart Study

Blacks are disproportionately affected by stroke compared with whites; however, less is known about the relationship between stroke and cigarette smoking in blacks. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and all incident stroke in the JHS (Jackson Heart Study).. JHS participants without a history of stroke (n=4410) were classified by self‐reported baseline smoking status into current, past (smoked at least 400 cigarettes/life), or … Continue reading Cigarette Smoking and Incident Stroke in Blacks of the Jackson Heart Study

Association Between Thrombolytic Door-to-Needle Time and 1-Year Mortality and Readmission in Patients With Acute Ischemic #Stroke

Earlier administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke is associated with reduced mortality by the time of hospital discharge and better functional outcomes at 3 months. However, it remains unclear whether shorter door-to-needle times translate into better long-term outcomes.. ..Among the 61 426 patients treated with tPA within 4.5 hours, the median age was 80 years and 43.5% were male. The median … Continue reading Association Between Thrombolytic Door-to-Needle Time and 1-Year Mortality and Readmission in Patients With Acute Ischemic #Stroke

Complement-Dependent Synaptic Uptake and Cognitive Decline after #Stroke and Reperfusion Therapy

..This study addresses two major challenges facing the treatment of stroke in the era of reperfusion therapy: hemorrhagic transformation and the disconnect between successful revascularization and functional outcomes. We studied how complement-dependent neuroinflammation drives the pathophysiology behind these challenges using a translationally relevant strategy. Complement inhibition was achieved using B4Crry, an injury site-targeted inhibitor of C3 activation. Following embolic stroke, pharmacological thrombolysis limited infarct size, … Continue reading Complement-Dependent Synaptic Uptake and Cognitive Decline after #Stroke and Reperfusion Therapy

Afternoon distraction: a high-saturated-fat meal and endotoxemia impact postmeal attention in a randomized crossover trial

Saturated-fat intake and endotoxemia can impair cognition. However, their acute impact on cognitive performance is unknown.. In this double-blind, randomized crossover trial, 51 women (n = 32 breast cancer survivors, n = 19 noncancer controls; mean ± SD age: 53 ± 8 y) completed the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and had their blood drawn to assess endotoxemia markers LPS binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), … Continue reading Afternoon distraction: a high-saturated-fat meal and endotoxemia impact postmeal attention in a randomized crossover trial

Physical presence of spouse enhances brain-to-brain synchrony in co-parenting couples

Co-parenting spouses who live together remain in close physical proximity to each other and regularly engage in reciprocal social interactions in joint endeavors to coordinate their caregiving. Although bi-parental rearing is a common occurrence in humans, the influence of the physical presence of a co-parenting spouse on parental brain responses remains largely unknown. Synchrony is conceptualized as the matching of behavioral and physiological signals between … Continue reading Physical presence of spouse enhances brain-to-brain synchrony in co-parenting couples

#Potato Protein Isolate Stimulates #Muscle Protein Synthesis at Rest and with Resistance Exercise in Young Women

Skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) increases in response to protein feeding and to resistance exercise (RE), where each stimuli acts synergistically when combined. The efficacy of plant proteins such as potato protein (PP) isolate to stimulate MPS is unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of PP ingestion on daily MPS with and without RE in healthy women. In a single blind, parallel-group design, … Continue reading #Potato Protein Isolate Stimulates #Muscle Protein Synthesis at Rest and with Resistance Exercise in Young Women

Long-term dietary #flavonoid intake and risk of #Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

Findings from existing prospective observational studies on the protective associations of flavonoid intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) are inconsistent largely due to limitations of these studies.. ..Over an average follow-up of 19.7 y in 2801 participants (mean baseline age = 59.1 y; 52% females), there were 193 ADRD events of which 158 were AD. After multivariate and dietary adjustments, … Continue reading Long-term dietary #flavonoid intake and risk of #Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

Association of Blood Pressure Lowering With Incident #Dementia or Cognitive Impairment A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

..The mean (SD) age of trial participants was 69 (5.4) years and 40 617 (42.2%) were women. The mean systolic baseline blood pressure was 154 (14.9) mm Hg and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 83.3 (9.9) mm Hg. The mean duration of follow-up was 49.2 months. Blood pressure lowering with antihypertensive agents compared with control was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia … Continue reading Association of Blood Pressure Lowering With Incident #Dementia or Cognitive Impairment A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Effect of Cerebrovascular and/or Peripheral #Artery Disease With or Without Attainment of #Lipid Goals on Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients undergoing coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with … Continue reading Effect of Cerebrovascular and/or Peripheral #Artery Disease With or Without Attainment of #Lipid Goals on Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

Heart–brain interactions shape somatosensory perception and evoked potentials

Our brain continuously receives signals from the body and the environment. Although we are mostly unaware of internal bodily processes, such as our heartbeats, they can affect our perception. Here, we show two distinct ways in which the heartbeat modulates conscious perception. First, increased heartbeat-evoked neural activity before stimulation is followed by decreased somatosensory detection. This effect can be explained by subjects adopting a more … Continue reading Heart–brain interactions shape somatosensory perception and evoked potentials

Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: Friend or Foe?

Neuroinflammation is part of the complex immune response within the central nervous system (CNS), whose details have been partially elucidated. The CNS immune response involves elements carried from the periphery and resident elements, mainly represented by glial cells. These cells drive neuroinflammation, which can be roughly defined as an articulated physiological response characterized by the production of a plethora of inflammatory mediators that alter the … Continue reading Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: Friend or Foe?

Emotional #Stress Induces Structural Plasticity in Bergmann Glial Cells via an AC5–CPEB3–GluA1 Pathway

..SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic transmission by extending fine processes around synapses. In this study, we showed that a single exposure to an acute stress triggered a retraction of lateral/fine processes in mouse cerebellar astrocytes. These astrocytes express GluA1, a glutamate receptor subunit known to lengthen astrocyte processes. We showed that astrocytic structural changes are associated with a reduction of GluA1 protein … Continue reading Emotional #Stress Induces Structural Plasticity in Bergmann Glial Cells via an AC5–CPEB3–GluA1 Pathway