Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis of 392 Cases in Italy

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020. The knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology soon provided a strong rationale for the early use of both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic drugs; however, its evidence was slowly and partially incorporated into institutional guidelines. The unmet needs of COVID-19 outpatients were taken care of by networks of physicians and researchers. …

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How nature nurtures: Amygdala activity decreases as the result of a one-hour walk in nature

Since living in cities is associated with an increased risk for mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia, it is essential to understand how exposure to urban and natural environments affects mental health and the brain. It has been shown that the amygdala is more activated during a stress task in urban compared …

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Thirdhand Exposures to Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines through Inhalation, Dust Ingestion, Dermal Uptake, and Epidermal Chemistry

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are emitted during smoking and form indoors by nitrosation of nicotine. Two of them, Nβ€²-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are human carcinogens with No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs) of 500 and 14 ng day–1, respectively. Another TSNA, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl) butanal (NNA), shows genotoxic and mutagenic activity in vitro. Here, we present additional evidence …

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Spontaneous discovery of novel task solutions in children

Children often perform worse than adults on tasks that require focused attention. While this is commonly regarded as a sign of incomplete cognitive development, a broader attentional focus could also endow children with the ability to find novel solutions to a given task. To test this idea, we investigated children’s ability to discover and use …

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Passage of exogeneous fine particles from the lung into the brain in humans and animals

There are still significant knowledge gaps in understanding the intrusion and retention of exogeneous particles into the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we uncovered various exogeneous fine particles in human cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) and identified the ambient environmental or occupational exposure sources of these particles, including commonly found particles (e.g., Fe- and Ca-containing ones) and …

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