Association of #Gastric Bypass Surgery With Risk of Developing #Diabetic #Retinopathy Among Patients With #Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Sweden

Knowledge of the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) after gastric bypass surgery (GBP) in patients with obesity and diabetes could guide the management of these patients. Objective To investigate the incidence of diabetic ocular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes after GBP compared with the incidence of diabetic ocular complications in a matched cohort of patients with obesity and diabetes who have … Continue reading Association of #Gastric Bypass Surgery With Risk of Developing #Diabetic #Retinopathy Among Patients With #Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Sweden

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NAD+ depletion by type I interferon signaling sensitizes #pancreatic cancer cells to NAMPT inhibition

Emerging evidence suggests that intratumoral interferon (IFN) signaling can trigger targetable vulnerabilities. A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is its extensively reprogrammed metabolic network, in which nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, are critical cofactors. Here, we show that IFN signaling, present in a subset of PDAC tumors, substantially lowers NAD(H) levels through up-regulating the expression of NAD-consuming enzymes PARP9, PARP10, … Continue reading NAD+ depletion by type I interferon signaling sensitizes #pancreatic cancer cells to NAMPT inhibition

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Effects of two personalized #dietary strategies during a 2‐year intervention in subjects with nonalcoholic #fatty #liver disease: a randomized trial

Background and objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management is focused on lifestyle modifications, but long‐term maintenance is a challenge for many individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the long‐term effects of two personalized energy‐restricted dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic and hepatic outcomes in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods Ninety‐eight subjects from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study (NCT03183193) were randomly assigned to … Continue reading Effects of two personalized #dietary strategies during a 2‐year intervention in subjects with nonalcoholic #fatty #liver disease: a randomized trial

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#Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Induces Antitumor Immunity and Cytotoxicity in #Liver Tumors in Mice

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shed light on the importance of antitumor immunity as a therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The altered glucose metabolism known as the Warburg effect recently has gained attention as a cancer immune-resistance mechanism. Considering glycolysis inhibitors as therapeutic agents, their specific delivery to cancer cells is critical not to induce adverse effects. Thus, we investigated antitumor effects of a glycolysis … Continue reading #Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Induces Antitumor Immunity and Cytotoxicity in #Liver Tumors in Mice

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Fecal #microbiota transplant overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in #melanoma patients

Anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy provides long-term clinical benefits to patients with advanced melanoma. The composition of the gut microbiota correlates with anti–PD-1 efficacy in preclinical models and cancer patients. To investigate whether resistance to anti–PD-1 can be overcome by changing the gut microbiota, this clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of responder-derived fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) together with anti–PD-1 in patients … Continue reading Fecal #microbiota transplant overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in #melanoma patients

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#Adipose saturation reduces #lipotoxic systemic inflammation and explains the #obesity paradox

Obesity sometimes seems protective in disease. This obesity paradox is predominantly described in reports from the Western Hemisphere during acute illnesses. Since adipose triglyceride composition corresponds to long-term dietary patterns, we performed a meta-analysis modeling the effect of obesity on severity of acute pancreatitis, in the context of dietary patterns of the countries from which the studies originated. Increased severity was noted in leaner populations … Continue reading #Adipose saturation reduces #lipotoxic systemic inflammation and explains the #obesity paradox

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The Tailgate Study: Differing #metabolic effects of a bout of excessive #eating and #drinking

Excess energy intake by spectators at a sporting event (i.e., a tailgate) might cause acute negative health effects. However, limited data exist regarding the effects of overeating and alcohol consumption on lipid metabolism and the potential to gain intrahepatic triacylglycerols (IHTG). We tested the hypothesis that overconsumption of food and alcohol would significantly increase both hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and IHTG. Methods Eighteen males … Continue reading The Tailgate Study: Differing #metabolic effects of a bout of excessive #eating and #drinking

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Are Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease at an Increased Risk of Developing #SARS-CoV-2 than Patients Without Inflammatory #Bowel Disease? Results From a Nationwide Veterans’ Affairs Cohort Study

The clinic course of SARS-CoV-2 among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been extensively studied. However, there is a paucity of data on whether patients with IBD have an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 with compared with patients without IBD. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in the US Veterans’ Affairs healthcare system from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020. We … Continue reading Are Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease at an Increased Risk of Developing #SARS-CoV-2 than Patients Without Inflammatory #Bowel Disease? Results From a Nationwide Veterans’ Affairs Cohort Study

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A neurotransmitter produced by #gut bacteria modulates host sensory #behaviour

Animals coexist in commensal, pathogenic or mutualistic relationships with complex communities of diverse organisms, including microorganisms. Some bacteria produce bioactive neurotransmitters that have previously been proposed to modulate nervous system activity and behaviours of their hosts. However, the mechanistic basis of this microbiota–brain signalling and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the neuromodulator tyramine produced by commensal Providencia … Continue reading A neurotransmitter produced by #gut bacteria modulates host sensory #behaviour

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Serum hepatitis B #core‐related antigen level stratifies risk of disease progression in chronic #hepatitis B patients with intermediate viral load

Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at risk of developing liver disease. Serum hepatitis B core‐related antigen (HBcrAg) is a new biomarker for intrahepatic templates for HBV replication.. ..A total of 1673 treatment‐naïve, non‐cirrhotic patients with negative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level <40 U/L at baseline were enrolled. We explored the relationship between baseline levels of HBcrAg … Continue reading Serum hepatitis B #core‐related antigen level stratifies risk of disease progression in chronic #hepatitis B patients with intermediate viral load

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#Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

The gut microbiome is shaped by diet and influences host metabolism; however, these links are complex and can be unique to each individual. We performed deep metagenomic sequencing of 1,203 gut microbiomes from 1,098 individuals enrolled in the Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial (PREDICT 1) study, whose detailed long-term diet information, as well as hundreds of fasting and same-meal postprandial cardiometabolic blood marker measurements … Continue reading #Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

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Efficacy and safety of #linagliptin in type 2 #diabetes patients with self-reported #hepatic disorders: A retrospective pooled analysis of 17 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials

Liver disease is highly prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in subjects with T2DM and hepatic disorders.. ..Of the 7009 participants (56% white, 39% Asian), 574 had hepatic disorders, most commonly hepatic steatosis (60%). At week 24, adjusted mean ± standard error (SE) change in HbA1c from baseline in those with hepatic disorders was − … Continue reading Efficacy and safety of #linagliptin in type 2 #diabetes patients with self-reported #hepatic disorders: A retrospective pooled analysis of 17 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials

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