Partial and Total #Sleep Deprivation Interferes with Neural Correlates of Consolidation of #Fear Extinction #Memory

We assessed the impact of total and partial sleep loss on neural correlates of fear conditioning and extinction learning and recall in healthy young adults. Methods Participants (56.3% female, age 24.8±3.4) were randomized to a night of normal sleep (NS, n=48), sleep restriction (SR, n=53), or sleep deprivation (SD, n=53). All completed fear conditioning and extinction learning phases the following morning. Extinction recall was tested … Continue reading Partial and Total #Sleep Deprivation Interferes with Neural Correlates of Consolidation of #Fear Extinction #Memory

Complementary contributions of non-REM and #REM sleep to visual #learning

Sleep is beneficial for learning. However, it remains unclear whether learning is facilitated by non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep or by REM sleep, whether it results from plasticity increases or stabilization, and whether facilitation results from learning-specific processing. Here, we trained volunteers on a visual task and measured the excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) balance in early visual areas during subsequent sleep as an index of … Continue reading Complementary contributions of non-REM and #REM sleep to visual #learning

Generative Feedback Explains Distinct Brain Activity Codes for Seen and Mental Images

The relationship between mental imagery and vision is a long-standing problem in neuroscience. Currently, it is not known whether differences between the activity evoked during vision and reinstated during imagery reflect different codes for seen and mental images. To address this problem, we modeled mental imagery in the human brain as feedback in a hierarchical generative network. Such networks synthesize images by feeding abstract representations … Continue reading Generative Feedback Explains Distinct Brain Activity Codes for Seen and Mental Images

Association of Dual Decline in Memory and #Gait Speed With Risk for #Dementia Among Adults Older Than 60 Years

Dual decline in both memory and gait speed may characterize a group of older individuals at high risk for future dementia.. ..Participants were 60 years or older, had an initial gait speed of more than 0.6 m/s (ie, free of overt dismobility), with repeated measures of memory and gait speed before dementia diagnosis during a mean follow-up of 6.6 to 14.5 years. Within each study, … Continue reading Association of Dual Decline in Memory and #Gait Speed With Risk for #Dementia Among Adults Older Than 60 Years

How #odor cues help to optimize #learning during sleep in a real life-setting

Effortless learning during sleep is everybody’s dream. Several studies found that presenting odor cues during learning and selectively during slow wave sleep increases learning success.. ..We (1) performed a field study of vocabulary-learning in a regular school setting, (2) stimulated with odor cues during the whole night without sleep monitoring, and (3) applied the odor additionally as retrieval cue in a subsequent test.. ..Our results … Continue reading How #odor cues help to optimize #learning during sleep in a real life-setting

Effects of #Caffeine and Acute Aerobic #Exercise on Working Memory and Caffeine Withdrawal

Studies show that a single bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits. However, many individuals use psychoactive substances such as caffeine to enhance cognitive performance.. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise to caffeine on working memory (WM) and caffeine withdrawal symptoms (CWS). In Phase I, non-caffeine (n = 29) and caffeine consumers (n = 30) completed a WM assessment, followed … Continue reading Effects of #Caffeine and Acute Aerobic #Exercise on Working Memory and Caffeine Withdrawal

Extra virgin #olive oil improves synaptic activity, short‐term plasticity, #memory, and neuropathology in a tauopathy model

In recent years, increasing evidence has accumulated supporting the health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Previous studies showed that EVOO supplementation improves Alzheimer’s disease (AD)‐like amyloidotic phenotype of transgenic mice.. ..At the end of the treatment, compared with control mice receiving EVOO displayed improved memory and cognition which was associated with increased basal synaptic activity and short‐term plasticity. This effect was accompanied by … Continue reading Extra virgin #olive oil improves synaptic activity, short‐term plasticity, #memory, and neuropathology in a tauopathy model