#Levothyroxine dose and risk of atrial #fibrillation: A nested case-control study

Contemporary data on the effect of levothyroxine dose on the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) are lacking, particularly in the older population. Our objective was to determine the effect of cumulative levothyroxine exposure on risk of AF and ischemic stroke in older adults We conducted a population-based observational study using health care databases from Ontario, Canada. We identified adults aged ≥66 years without a history … Continue reading #Levothyroxine dose and risk of atrial #fibrillation: A nested case-control study

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#Aprotinin Inhibits #SARS-CoV-2 Replication

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the current coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Protease inhibitors are under consideration as virus entry inhibitors that prevent the cleavage of the coronavirus spike (S) protein by cellular proteases. Herein, we showed that the protease inhibitor aprotinin (but not the protease inhibitor SERPINA1/alpha-1 antitrypsin) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in therapeutically achievable concentrations. An analysis of … Continue reading #Aprotinin Inhibits #SARS-CoV-2 Replication

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The gut #microbiota is associated with #immune cell dynamics in humans

The gut microbiota influences development and homeostasis of the mammalian immune system, and is associated with human inflammatory and immune diseases as well as responses to immunotherapy. Nevertheless, our understanding of how gut bacteria modulate the immune system remains limited, particularly in humans, where the difficulty of direct experimentation makes inference challenging. Here we study hundreds of hospitalized—and closely monitored—patients with cancer receiving haematopoietic cell … Continue reading The gut #microbiota is associated with #immune cell dynamics in humans

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Distinct #inflammatory profiles distinguish #COVID-19 from #influenza with limited contributions from #cytokine storm

We pursued a study of immune responses in COVID-19 and influenza cohorts. Compared to influenza patients, COVID-19 patients exhibited largely equivalent lymphocyte counts, fewer monocytes, and lower surface HLA-class II expression on select monocyte populations. Furthermore, decreased HLA-DR on intermediate monocytes was a significant predictor of COVID-19 disease severity. In contrast to prevailing assumptions about COVID-19 disease immunopathology, very few (7 of 168) COVID-19 patients … Continue reading Distinct #inflammatory profiles distinguish #COVID-19 from #influenza with limited contributions from #cytokine storm

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#Vegetarian and #vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific #fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-meat eaters.. ..Compared with meat eaters and after adjustment for socio-economic factors, lifestyle confounders, and body mass index (BMI), the risks of hip fracture were higher in fish eaters (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% CI 1.02–1.54), … Continue reading #Vegetarian and #vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific #fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

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#Loneliness, Mental Health, and Substance Use among US Young Adults during #COVID-19

As COVID-19 converges with loneliness and addiction epidemics in the US, both public health and mental health experts forecast dramatic increases in substance use and mental health conditions. This cross-sectional study evaluated relationships of loneliness with depression, anxiety, alcohol use, and drug use during COVID-19, and assessed perceived increases in these symptoms in young adults. Between April 22 and May 11, 2020, 1,008 participants ages … Continue reading #Loneliness, Mental Health, and Substance Use among US Young Adults during #COVID-19

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Metabolic Architecture of Acute #Exercise Response in Middle-Aged Adults in the Community

Whereas regular exercise is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, mechanisms of exercise-mediated health benefits remain less clear. We used metabolite profiling before and after acute exercise to delineate the metabolic architecture of exercise response patterns in humans.. ..We observed changes in circulating levels for 502 of 588 measured metabolites from rest to peak exercise (exercise duration 11.9±2.1 minutes) at a 5% … Continue reading Metabolic Architecture of Acute #Exercise Response in Middle-Aged Adults in the Community

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Integrative analysis for #COVID-19 patient outcome prediction

While image analysis of chest computed tomography (CT) for COVID-19 diagnosis has been intensively studied, little work has been performed for image-based patient outcome prediction. Management of high-risk patients with early intervention is a key to lower the fatality rate of COVID-19 pneumonia, as a majority of patients recover naturally. Therefore, an accurate prediction of disease progression with baseline imaging at the time of the … Continue reading Integrative analysis for #COVID-19 patient outcome prediction

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Effects of oral #semaglutide on energy intake, #food preference, #appetite, control of eating and body #weight in subjects with type 2 #diabetes

Aims To evaluate the effect of oral semaglutide on energy intake and appetite in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In this randomised, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, two‐period cross‐over trial, 15 subjects with T2D received 12 weeks’ treatment with once‐daily oral semaglutide (4‐week dose‐escalation from 3 to 7 to 14 mg) followed by placebo, or vice versa. Energy intake was measured during an ad … Continue reading Effects of oral #semaglutide on energy intake, #food preference, #appetite, control of eating and body #weight in subjects with type 2 #diabetes

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Acute social #isolation evokes midbrain craving responses similar to #hunger

When people are forced to be isolated from each other, do they crave social interactions? To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural responses evoked by food and social cues after participants (n = 40) experienced 10 h of mandated fasting or total social isolation. After isolation, people felt lonely and craved social interaction. Midbrain regions showed selective activation to food cues after … Continue reading Acute social #isolation evokes midbrain craving responses similar to #hunger

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Cynical #hostility relates to a lack of habituation of the #cardiovascular response to repeated acute stress

Hostility is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Heightened cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress has been proposed as a potential mechanism. Recent work has emphasized a need to measure cardiovascular reactivity across multiple stress exposures to assess potential habituation over time. The aims of the current study were (a) to examine the relationship between each of the three main components of hostility (i.e., emotional, … Continue reading Cynical #hostility relates to a lack of habituation of the #cardiovascular response to repeated acute stress

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with #COVID-19: Findings from the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed longstanding racial/ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the U.S.. We sought to identify racial/ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.. ..Among 7,868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and … Continue reading Racial and Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with #COVID-19: Findings from the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry

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