The unfolding #COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of #mental health in the U.S.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time, yet rigorous published empirical studies addressing mental health consequences of COVID-19 among large probability-based national samples are rare. Between 3/18-4/18/20, during an escalating period of illness and death in the United States, we assessed acute stress, depressive symptoms and direct, community, and media-based exposures to COVID-19 in three consecutive representative samples across three 10-day periods … Continue reading The unfolding #COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of #mental health in the U.S.

#Loneliness and type 2 #diabetes incidence: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Loneliness is associated with all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. However, the prospective relationship between loneliness and type 2 diabetes onset is unclear.. ..A total of 264 (6.42%) participants developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up period. Loneliness was a significant predictor of incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.15, 1.84; p = 0.002) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, wealth, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol … Continue reading #Loneliness and type 2 #diabetes incidence: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Chest x-ray findings and temporal #lung changes in patients with #COVID-19 pneumonia

Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study aims at describing the chest x-ray findings and temporal radiographic changes in COVID-19 patients.. ..A total of 88 patients (50 (56.8%) females and 38 (43.2%) males) were admitted to the hospital with confirmed … Continue reading Chest x-ray findings and temporal #lung changes in patients with #COVID-19 pneumonia

#Bile Acids Signal via TGR5 to Activate #Intestinal Stem Cells and Epithelial Regeneration

Renewal and patterning of the intestinal epithelium is coordinated by intestinal stem cells (ISCs); dietary and metabolic factors provide signals to the niche that control ISC activity. Bile acids (BAs), metabolites in the gut, signal nutrient availability by activating the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also called TGR5). TGR5 is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, but it is not clear how its activation … Continue reading #Bile Acids Signal via TGR5 to Activate #Intestinal Stem Cells and Epithelial Regeneration

Transcriptomic and clonal characterization of #T cells in the human central #nervous system

T cells provide critical immune surveillance to the central nervous system (CNS), and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to be a main route for their entry. Further characterization of the state of T cells in the CSF in healthy individuals is important for understanding how T cells provide protective immune surveillance without damaging the delicate environment of the CNS and providing tissue-specific context for … Continue reading Transcriptomic and clonal characterization of #T cells in the human central #nervous system

Randomized Trial of Nocturnal #Oxygen in Chronic #Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Long-term oxygen therapy improves survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic severe daytime hypoxemia. However, the efficacy of oxygen therapy for the management of isolated nocturnal hypoxemia is uncertain.. ..Patients with an oxygen saturation of less than 90% for at least 30% of the recording time on nocturnal oximetry were assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either nocturnal oxygen or … Continue reading Randomized Trial of Nocturnal #Oxygen in Chronic #Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

#Depression and subsequent risk for incident rheumatoid #arthritis among women

We investigated the association of depression with subsequent risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by serologic phenotype.. ..Among 195,358 women, we identified 858 incident RA cases (65% seropositive) over 3,087,556 person‐years (median 17.9 years/participant). Compared to women without depression, those with depression had multivariable HRs (95%CIs) of: 1.28(1.10‐1.48) for all RA; 1.12(0.93‐1.35) for seropositive RA; and 1.63(1.27‐2.09) for seronegative RA. When analyzing components of the composite … Continue reading #Depression and subsequent risk for incident rheumatoid #arthritis among women

Association of #Coffee Intake With Survival in Patients With Advanced or Metastatic #Colorectal Cancer

Several compounds found in coffee possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing effects, which may contribute to anticancer activity. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between increased coffee consumption and decreased recurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer. The association between coffee consumption and survival in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer is unknown.. ..Among the 1171 patients included in the analysis (694 men [59%]; median age, 59 … Continue reading Association of #Coffee Intake With Survival in Patients With Advanced or Metastatic #Colorectal Cancer

Increased risk of acute #stroke among patients with severe #COVID‐19: a multicenter study and meta‐analysis

Recent observations linked coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) to thromboembolic complications possibly mediated by increased blood coagulability and inflammatory endothelial impairment. We aimed to define the risk of acute stroke in patients with severe and non‐severe COVID‐19.. ..Of 165 patients hospitalized for COVID‐19 (49.1% males, median age 67 [57‐79], 72.1% severe or critical) included in the multicenter study, overall stroke rate was 4.2% (95%CI: 1.9‐8.7). Systematic … Continue reading Increased risk of acute #stroke among patients with severe #COVID‐19: a multicenter study and meta‐analysis

Chromatin accessibility mapping of the striatum identifies tyrosine kinase FYN as a therapeutic target for #heroin use disorder

The current opioid epidemic necessitates a better understanding of human addiction neurobiology to develop efficacious treatment approaches. Here, we perform genome-wide assessment of chromatin accessibility of the human striatum in heroin users and matched controls. Our study reveals distinct neuronal and non-neuronal epigenetic signatures, and identifies a locus in the proximity of the gene encoding tyrosine kinase FYN as the most affected region in neurons. … Continue reading Chromatin accessibility mapping of the striatum identifies tyrosine kinase FYN as a therapeutic target for #heroin use disorder

Associations of #BMI and Serum #Urate with Developing #Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Recent studies suggested that higher BMI and serum urate levels were associated with lower risk of developing dementia. However, these reverse relationships remain controversial, and whether serum urate and BMI confound each other is not well established.. ..During a median of 8.1 years of follow-up, a total of 2138 participants developed dementia. People who were underweight had an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] … Continue reading Associations of #BMI and Serum #Urate with Developing #Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Post-traumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for #dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a potential risk factor for developing dementia. There are currently, however, no meta-analyses quantifying this risk.. ..PTSD was associated with a significant risk for all-cause dementia: pooled hazard ratio HR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.43–1.81, I2= 85.8%, P < 0.001; n = 1 693 678; 8 studies). Pooled HR was 1.61 (95% CI 1.46–1.78; I2= 80.9%, P … Continue reading Post-traumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for #dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis