..This study addresses two major challenges facing the treatment of stroke in the era of reperfusion therapy: hemorrhagic transformation and the disconnect between successful revascularization and functional outcomes. We studied how complement-dependent neuroinflammation drives the pathophysiology behind these challenges using a translationally relevant strategy.
Complement inhibition was achieved using B4Crry, an injury site-targeted inhibitor of C3 activation. Following embolic stroke, pharmacological thrombolysis limited infarct size, but did not prevent complement activation. In reperfused and non-reperfused stroke, complement activation and opsonization of hippocampal synapses resulted in synaptic phagocytosis and subsequent cognitive decline. B4Crry treatment limited perilesional complement deposition, reduced microgliosis and synaptic uptake, and improved cognitive outcomes. Complement inhibition also improved the safety, efficacy, and treatment window of thrombolytic therapy.